As soon as the snow melts, leafless shrubs appear in the cities of Western Europe, completely covered with golden flowers. These messengers of spring are forsythia, or forsythia.
All types of shrubs are native to East Asia, and only European forsythia is found in the wild in Albania and in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.
In our latitudes, forsythia has not yet gained wide popularity, but interest in it is steadily increasing. In our article, you will learn many interesting facts about this plant, including:
- when and how to plant forsythia in the garden;
- how to care for this plant;
- how to propagate it and protect it from diseases and pests.
Planting and caring for forsythia
- Landing: in spring or early fall.
- Bloom: 10-14 days in early spring.
- Lighting: bright sun or partial shade.
- The soil: dry, slightly alkaline or neutral.
- Watering: in dry season 1-2 times a month. Water consumption - 10-12 liters for each bush.
- Top dressing: The first time - in early spring with rotted manure, the second time - in April with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer. The third top dressing is after flowering with mineral fertilizers.
- Cropping: early spring - sanitary pruning, shaping - in summer, after flowering
- Reproduction: vegetative - green or lignified cuttings, layering. Seed propagation is rarely used.
- Pests: nematodes, aphids.
- Diseases: moniliosis, bacteriosis, wilting, root rot.
Read more about growing forsythia below.
Plant forsythia (lat.Forsythia), or foresight - a genus of small trees and shrubs of the Olive family, blooming in early spring with bright yellow flowers. The genus of forsythia is very ancient, and this is confirmed by the scattered natural habitat of growth: six types of forsythia grow in East Asia (in Japan, Korea, China), in Europe, forsythia flowers, represented by the only species of forsythia European (Forsythia europaea), bloom mainly in the Balkans, although I was first struck by the blooming forsythia in mid-March in Germany. The forsythia flower was named after William Forsyth, a Scottish botanist, chief gardener of Kensington Palace and one of the founders of the Royal Horticultural Society. It was Forsythe who brought the first forsythia bush to Europe from China.
Forsythia, as already mentioned, is a small tree or bush with a height of one to three meters. The bark has a rough texture and a gray-brown hue. Leaves in some species are trifoliate, but in most forsythia they are simple, without stipules, opposite, oval in shape with jagged edges, ranging in length from two to fifteen centimeters. Bell-shaped flowers are bright yellow. Forsythia bloom begins in early spring and lasts up to three weeks, sometimes even longer. The fruit is a capsule with winged seeds.
Today it is impossible to imagine city streets, squares and private gardens in Europe without forsythia, and primarily because it is she who is the symbol of the arrival of spring. On the gray, still wintry streets, the yellow flame of forsythia flowers suddenly begins to blaze, and the townspeople, yearning for warmth and greenery, perk up their spirits, begin to prepare for spring. Such an early flowering of forsythia is a property that distinguishes it from other shrubs. Its popularity is added by undemanding care and location. What features in the care and cultivation of this shrub, popular with flower growers, differs?
- Forsythia are light-requiring, but they grow in the shade.
- The soil for the plant needs to be limed.
- Forsythia looks most effective against the background of dark green conifers.
- In autumn, the green leaves of forsythia turn golden or purple-violet, and it again attracts attention with its bright variegated flame.
When to plant
Planting and transplanting forsythia is carried out in spring or early autumn, before the start of frost, so that the plant has time to take root before winter. For this, they choose a site protected from the wind in the sun or in partial shade - although forsythia is shade-tolerant, it loves light. The plant is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but it grows best on slightly alkaline dry soils.
If the pH in the area is shifted to the acidic side, it is better to dig up the soil with wood ash in advance.
In the photo: Growing forsythia in the garden
How to plant
Pits for forsythia should be 50x50x60 in size so that the root ball after planting is at a depth of 30-40 cm.If you plant several bushes, then dig holes for them at a distance of one and a half meters from each other. Before planting, it is necessary to fill in the pits a layer of drainage made of broken brick or crushed stone 15-20 cm thick, then a ten-centimeter layer of sand, then a mixture of leaf earth, sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 and 200 g of wood ash. Forsythia seedlings are lowered into a hole, buried in earth, which is then compacted, and watered abundantly.
If forsythia is planted by you in the spring, then in the future it will require normal care from you. Autumn planting and caring for forsythia is somewhat more complicated: they require the obligatory mulching of the site, regardless of the type of plant you have planted. The covering material must be breathable so that flower buds do not lie underneath during short thaws in winter.
Caring for forsythia is not much different from caring for any garden bush. With a sufficient rate of precipitation in the summer, the plant does not need watering, but if the summer turns out to be dry, then forsythia will have to be watered at least once or twice a month at the rate of 10-12 liters for each bush. After watering, you need to loosen the soil and remove the weeds, and you need to loosen it to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel in order to provide air access to the roots of the plant. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with compost or dry soil.
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Forsythia is fertilized three times per season: in early spring, a thick layer of rotted manure is laid out in the near-trunk circle, but not close to the branches and trunk, and then watered abundantly. Manure will become both mulch and organic food for the plant. In April, a complete mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil at the rate of 60-70 g per 1 m². After flowering, when the plant lays flower buds for the next year, forsythia is fed with a universal kemira at the rate of 100-120 g per 1 m².
In the photo: Spring flowering forsythia
Reproduction of forsythia
Forsythia is propagated most often vegetatively. For example, green cuttings about 15 cm long, which are best cut in June. The lower leaves are removed, and the cuttings, having previously been treated with a root stimulator (root, epin or heteroauxin), are planted under a greenhouse in perlite or sand.
Can be rooted and woody cuttings, cut in October, and planted directly in the ground in the garden, leaving two or three buds above the surface. You just need to cover the cuttings for the winter with dry leaves. In the spring, when you remove the cover, the cuttings that have taken hold will grow, and by the fall you will have beautiful seedlings.
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Forsythia is also propagated layering: in summer or autumn, bend the lower young shoot to the ground, after pulling it at the base with wire and cutting the bark on the side that lies on the ground, fix it, sprinkle it with fertile soil, and the shoot will very soon form roots. In the spring, cut this branch from the bush, and the next year the young plant will bloom.
Forsythia also reproduces in a generative way, that is, by seeds, but this is already a conversation for specialists.
Young forsythia bushes are subjected only to sanitary pruning - they remove frozen, shriveled or broken shoots. In adult plants, the frozen ends of the branches are cut off in the spring, while the main pruning is carried out in the summer, when the flowering ends: the faded branches are shortened by half, the old and dried ones are cut at a height of 4-6 cm from the soil level, and then lateral shoots will go from them. Pruning also helps to regulate the density, height and shape of the shrub - cupped or globular.
If you need to rejuvenate your mature forsythia, it is best to prune all branches to a height of 4-6 cm, or at least 2/3, in order to activate the growth of young shoots. But do not abuse such haircuts, because as a result, the bush will grow stronger, but it will stop blooming. It is necessary to rejuvenate forsythia so that it does not lose its decorative qualities, no more than once every 3-4 years.
Pests and diseases
This shrub is resistant to both pests and diseases, but sometimes it is affected by wilting, moniliosis and bacteriosis. Withering is treated by spraying with a two to five percent solution Planting a white turf, but there is no salvation from bacteriosis, and the bush will have to be dug up along with the roots and destroyed. Moniliosis is expressed by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. In case of illness, you need to cut and clean all the affected areas to healthy tissue.
Forsythia has trouble due to nematodes, then you have to disinfect the soil with carbation.
Forsythia after flowering and wilting
To protect the forsythia from winter frosts, the trunk circle is covered with a ten-centimeter layer of dry foliage, the branches are bent to the ground and pinned, and spruce branches are thrown over them from above. In early spring, the shelter is removed, the branches are unfastened, dry leaves are removed from the trunk. Young plants for the winter are entirely covered with spruce branches. In snowy winters, forsythia winters beautifully even without shelter, but who knows in advance what winter will turn out to be?
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Types and varieties
The most common species in culture in our latitudes is European forsythia (Forsythia europaea). It is a low (up to two meters) upright shrub with entire oblong leaves up to 7 cm long. Its flowers are single, bell-shaped, golden yellow in color.
Very similar to European, but more sensitive to low temperatures. She is the same height, her stems are also mostly straight, but tetrahedral, yellow-brown in color. Leaves are elliptical, dark green, up to 10 cm long. Blossoms in May with large graceful light yellow flowers with twisted petals.
In the photo: Forsythia giraldiana
Forsythia hanging, or drooping, or drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
A taller shrub - up to three meters tall, with a spreading crown, arched, drooping, thin tetrahedral branches of a reddish-brown or olive color. Leaves on old shoots are simple, on growth ones - trifoliate. The flowers are large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, golden yellow, collected in bunches of several pieces. Several forms of hanging forsythia are grown in culture:
- variegated (forsythia variegata) - bright yellow flowers, yellowish variegated leaves;
- Fortune (forsythia fortunei) with narrow trifoliate leaves, dark yellow flowers, collected in bunches;
- purple stem (forsythia artocaulis) - with dark red shoots and leaves at the time of disclosure;
- and others: forsythia of Zimbold, forsythia deceiving, forsythia hanging from Fortune.
In the photo: Forsythia suspensa
Forsythia dark green (Forsythia viridissima)
High, up to three meters high, shrub with green branches directed upwards. Leaves are dense, simple, oblong-lanceolate, serrated in the upper part, very dark green shade, up to 15 cm long, up to 4 cm wide. Bright greenish-yellow flowers are collected in few bunches. Drought-resistant.
In the photo: Forsythia dark green (Forsythia viridissima)
Intermediate forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia)
It is a hybrid of drooping forsythia and dark green forsythia. It grows up to three meters in height, blooms in the fourth year of life. Its leaves are oblong with a jagged edge, but there are also trifoliate, up to 10 cm long. The dark green color of the leaves remains until late autumn. Bright yellow flowers are collected in bunches of several pieces. Blooms in April-May. Hardy, drought-resistant, growing very quickly. Varieties:
- Beatrix Farrand - the height of the bush is up to 4 m, the flowers are bright yellow with dark yellow stripes at the base;
- Denziflora - a low bush up to one and a half meters tall and about the same in volume, the flowers are pale yellow, twisted. Blooms in May for two to three weeks. Afraid of frost;
- Spectabilis - one of the most beautiful varieties: a bush of only one meter in height, but the crown reaches 120 cm in diameter. The leaves are green in warm weather, in autumn they are purple and bright yellow. The flowers are dark yellow up to 4.5 cm in diameter and bloom at the end of April.
In the photo: Forsythia intermediate (Forsythia x intermedia)
Forsythia snow, or white (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
Reaches a height of 1.5-2 m. Leaves are oval, up to 8 cm long; in summer, the underside of the leaves acquires a purple hue. The flowers, as the name implies, are white, with a yellow throat, pale pinkish in buds.
In the photo: Forsythia snow, or white (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
Forsythia ovoid (Forsythia ovata)
Low shrub - from one and a half to two meters in height. Branches are spreading, grayish-yellow in color. Leaves up to 7 cm long, bright green in summer, acquire a purple hue in autumn. Single bright yellow flowers up to two centimeters in diameter. It blooms earlier than all other types of forsythia, grows quickly, hardy and drought-resistant. Popular varieties:
In the photo: Forsythia ovate (Forsythia ovata)
- Spring Glory - up to three meters high, green leaves in summer become variegated in autumn - from pale yellow to dark purple. Blooms profusely in May with bright yellow large flowers;
- Tetragold - bush up to one meter tall, dark yellow flowers up to three centimeters in diameter. Blooms from mid-April;
- Goldsauber - a valuable and very popular variety with large golden yellow flowers. Frost resistant. Blooms from mid-April for about three weeks.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Olive family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Plants on F Olive (Olive)
All forsythia are shrubs that bloom bright yellow in April before foliage appears. The bushes themselves are 2-3 m high.
Forsythia European (Forsythia europaea)
Deciduous shrub up to 2 m high with oval leaves with a pointed top. Flowers are solitary, golden yellow, up to 4 cm in diameter. Blooms before the leaves open.
It is quite thermophilic, suitable for cultivation in the southern regions, in the conditions of central Russia, flower buds can freeze above the snow level.
Intermediate forsythia, or average forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia)
A hybrid of dark green and drooping forsythia (Forsythia viridissima x Forsythia suspensa).
Sprawling deciduous shrub up to 3 m high. Golden yellow flowers bloom in late April.
Quite winter-hardy and drought-resistant. It grows well in the conditions of central Russia and the Moscow region.
Popular varieties of intermediate forsythia:
Intermediate forsion Lynwood - shrub, up to 2 m high.
Intermediate forsion Lynwood
Intermediate forsion Fiesta - shrub 1.5 m high.
Intermediate forsion Minigold / Flojor - shrub 1.5 m high. The leaves are dark green with lighter veins. The flowers are light yellow.
Intermediate forsion Goldzauber - bush with a height and width of 2 - 2.5 m. The leaves are dark green. The flowers are yellow, very large.
Intermediate forsion Nimbus - undersized variety with a height of half a meter.
Intermediate forsion Golden Times - shrub 1.5 m high. The leaves are dark green with a yellow uneven border. The flowers are yellow.
Intermediate forsion Goldrausch - shrub up to 2.5 m high and up to 2.5 m wide. Leaves are lanceolate, green. The flowers are yellow, very large.
Intermediate forsion Era - shrub up to 1.5 m high and wide. One of the few varieties of forsythia that is decorative and leaves: they are dark green with yellow and white specks, often with a creamy yellow edge. Some of the leaves are slightly deformed. Flowers 2-3 cm long, yellow.
Intermediate forsion Spectabilis - flowering shrub, 2 m high and 2.5 m wide. It blooms with large flowers (up to 4 cm), dark yellow.
Forsythia ovoid, or oval forsythia (Forsythia ovata)
A shrub 1.5 m high, native to Korea, is considered the most winter-hardy species. The crown is spreading, flowers are about 2 cm in diameter, yellow. Blooms in April.
Forsythia giraldiana (Forsythia giraldiana)
A shrub up to 2 m tall, originally from China, in the middle lane it can freeze slightly. It blooms later in May.
In the southern regions, another Chinese species is promising - Hanging forsythia (Forsythia suspensa) - a shrub with weeping branches. Hanging forsythia has a variegated form - Variegata, a form with narrowed leaves and dark yellow flowers - Forchuna and a form with creeping shoots - Siebold.
There are many hybrid varieties that are reasonably frost-resistant, but for the most part fuchsias are heat-loving plants. In the garden, calm corners with sufficient lighting or slightly shaded are perfect for her. Prefers neutral, fertile soils.
Fuchsias are planted in open ground at the end of May - June. When planting, make sure that the root collar is no more than 20 cm deep. After rooting, the plants intensively gain strength and begin to bloom (about 2.5 weeks). Before digging up for the winter, the plant must survive the first frosts, thus undergoing some hardening before winter dormancy.
fertile, medium fertility, neutral
direct sunlight, partial shade, scattered sunlight
Forsythia is one of the first flowering shrubs. In the spring, long before the leaves appear, many golden yellow flowers bloom on its bushes. When the rest of the trees are still bare, the picture is impressive.
Flowering lasts about 25 days, and then leaves appear. At first, light green, in the fall they are painted in bright colors, and forsythia again attracts attention.
Needs watering, loosening the trunk circle and weeding.
Forsythia tolerates dry soil better than too wet.
Planting and leaving
Forsythia seedlings can be planted in spring or fall. It is better to purchase planting material with a closed root system - this guarantees good plant survival.
Choose the sunniest and most protected from cold winds for planting. Although forsythia put up with partial shade. They are unpretentious and drought-resistant. Light fertile and not highly acidic soils are desirable. In acidic ones, ash and dolomite flour or lime should be added. The ideal soil mixture consists of good humus, leafy soil and river sand (1: 1: 2).
Make planting holes 60 × 60 cm and a depth of 70 cm, the distance between seedlings is 1.5-3 m. On heavy soils, drainage from expanded clay or broken brick is required. After planting and watering, mulch with rotted foliage.
For the winter, the branches of young seedlings should be bent to the ground, fixed with hairpins and covered with fallen leaves or needles. In the spring, pour a thick layer of compost or humus under the bushes. During the first half of the summer, you can feed with complex mineral fertilizers in half the dose recommended on the package.
Reproduction of forsythia is not difficult. They can be cut with green, semi-lignified and winter cuttings or cuttings.
Green cuttings are cut in June, about 10-15 cm in size, semi-lignified - in the middle of summer. You can root cuttings cut from shoots left over from early spring pruning. They are planted in a shaded place in moist soil. It is better to do this in buried containers. Cover the cuttings to create a greenhouse effect. You can add layers in both spring and autumn. Forsythias are quite resistant to pests and diseases.
Cultivation techniques and pruning forsythia
Planting forsythia in the Moscow region and caring for it is exactly the same as in any region of Russia. This culture responds well to liming. Acidic soil does not suit her, therefore, when planting in such land, it is necessary to add slaked lime or wood ash. At the bottom of the planting pit, the depth of which is 50-70 cm, it is advisable to pour drainage (broken brick, crushed stone) with a layer of 15-20 cm, and on top - a layer of sand. A landing pit is prepared in advance with a depth of 50 × 50. When planting, it should be borne in mind that the plant will grow in width in the future.
It is better to plant forsythia in the fall, be sure to long before the first frost. A distance of 1.5-2 m is usually left between plants.
See how the forsythia is planted and taken care of in the photo, where the entire cultivation agrotechnology is clearly illustrated:
Spring care for forsythia begins with the introduction of a complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of 60-65 g per 1 m2. If there is a normal amount of rainfall, then watering is not required, since this crop tolerates dry weather better than excess moisture in the soil. But still, with a lack of moisture, in a hot and dry summer, watering is necessary (no more than once a month, 10-12 liters for each plant). Water the forsythia under the stem, the leaves must remain dry.
After moistening, the trunk circle is loosened and mulched with earth. It is also necessary to regularly remove weeds and loosen the soil with a shovel bayonet.
In early spring, a thin layer of rotted manure is spread around the plants and watered abundantly.
Pruning forsythia: every spring, frozen and dry old shoots are removed, and later - half of the faded inflorescences. Old plants are cut almost to ground level, leaving a stump 3-4 cm high. After shearing, the plant grows quickly and restores the crown.
When planting forsythia and leaving in the Urals for the winter, varieties that are not resistant to frost are insulated. For this, the branches are bent to the ground and covered with spruce branches. This will help protect the shrub from very severe frosts.
Forcing - flowers for the New Year or by the 14th of February
This adorable shrub can delight with its golden or snow-white buds not only in early spring. There is a way to get blooming twigs even in winter, when you so want to remember the splendor of bright forsythia bells.
Forcing a plant is a great way to get flowers in winter.
How distillation is done:
- In winter, when the plant has already gone into hibernation, but before the onset of frost, you need to cut off annual shoots to the desired length (about 50 cm).
- Wrap the cut branches in plastic (plastic wrap, regular shopping bag) and place them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
- On the eve of the holiday (10-12 days in advance) or just when the desire arises, you need to remove the branches from the refrigerator and place them in water (temperature 30-35 degrees) for 4-5 hours - this will allow the plant to wake up.
- At the end, you need to take a vase or a beautiful bottle, fill it with lukewarm water with dissolved sugar (50g / 1l), and put the twigs in the container.
After a while, the forsythia branches will be covered with delicate spring flowers. And a lush golden bouquet will decorate any room or will be a wonderful gift for the holiday.
Forsythia: features, care
Forsythia: description, planting in open ground, departure from Moscow region to Siberia - mini-encyclopedia (80+ Photos & Videos) + Reviews
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